President: Gjorge Ivanov (2009)
Prime Minister: Emil Dimitriev (Interim, 2016)
Land area: 9,928 sq mi (25,173 sq km); total area: 9,781 sq mi (25,333 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 2,091,719 (growth rate: 0.21%); birth rate: 11.64/1000; infant mortality rate: 7.9/1000; life expectancy: 75.8
Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Skopje, 499,000
Monetary unit: Denar
National Name: Republika Makedonija
Languages: Macedonian (official) 66.5%, Albanian (official) 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Ethnicity/race: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Religions: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
National Holiday: Ilinden Uprising Day, August 2
Literacy rate: 97.4% (2010 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $22.57 billion; per capita $10,800. Real growth rate: 3.1%. Inflation: 3.3%. Unemployment: 28.6%. Arable land: 16.1%. Agriculture: grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs. Labor force: 960,700 (2013 est.); agriculture 18.8%, industry 27.5%., services 53.7%. Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals. Natural resources: low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land. Exports: $4.267 billion (2013 est.): food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel; automotive parts. Imports: $6.6 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products. Major trading partners: Germany, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Turkey, U.K., Serbia, China, Kosovo (2011).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 407,900 (2012); mobile cellular: 2.235 million (2012). Broadcast media: public TV broadcaster operates 3 national channels and a satellite network; 5 privately-owned TV channels broadcast nationally using terrestrial transmitters and about 15 broadcast on national level via satellite; roughly 75 local commercial TV stations; large number of cable operators offering domestic and international programming; public radio broadcaster operates over multiple stations; 3 privately-owned radio stations broadcast nationally; about 70 local commercial radio stations (2012). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 62,826 (2012). Internet users: 1.057 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 699 km (2002). Roadways: total: 14,038 km (including 259 km of expressways); (2012 est.). Waterways: none, lake transport only. Ports and terminals: none. Airports: 10 (2013).
International disputes: Kosovo and Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia.
Macedonia is a landlocked state in the heart of the Balkans and is slightly smaller than the state of Vermont. It is a mountainous country with small basins of agricultural land. The Vardar is the largest and most important river.
The Republic of Macedonia occupies the western half of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia. Historic Macedonia was defeated by Rome and became a Roman province in 148 B.C. After the Roman Empire was divided in A.D. 395, Macedonia was intermittently ruled by the Byzantine Empire until Turkey took possession of the land in 1371. The Ottoman Turks dominated Macedonia for the next five centuries, until 1913. During the 19th and 20th centuries, there was a constant struggle by the Balkan powers to possess Macedonia for its economic wealth and its strategic military corridors. The Treaty of San Stefano in 1878, ending the Russo-Turkish War, gave the largest part of Macedonia to Bulgaria. Bulgaria lost much of its Macedonian territory when it was defeated by the Greeks and Serbs in the Second Balkan War of 1913. Most of Macedonia went to Serbia and the remainder was divided among Greece and Bulgaria.